.:I'm just a student:.

.:أنا مجرد طالب:.

Warning!!! تحذير

All of these posts (posts in this blog) are for personal use only. ........................................................ كل هذه وظيفة (وظائف في هذا بلوق) هي للاستخدام الشخصي فقط

Tib An Nabawi - 12 favorite foods of Rasulullah s.a.w.

12 favorite foods of Rasulullah s.a.w (as mentioned in At Tib-an Nabawi book)

Rasullah’s s.a.w. life had been most comprehensive and perfect and can serve as an ideal for men and women of all ages, at all times. His habits and advice have been absolutely perfect and shows moderate way of life and meets all the needs of man.

Barley


Good in fever, use in a soup form.

Dates


Rasulullah s.a.w. said that a house without dates has no food. It should also be eaten at the time of childbirth.

Figs




























It is a complete fruit and a cure for piles.

Grapes


Rasulullah s.a.w. was very fond of grapes - it purifies the blood, provides vigor and health, strengthens the kidneys and clears the bowels.

Honey


Considered the best remedy for diarrhea when mixed in hot water. It is the food of foods, drink of drinks and drug of drugs. It is used for creating appetite, strengthening the stomach, eliminating phlegm; as a meat preservative, hair conditioner, eye soother and mouthwash. It is extremely beneficial in the morning in warm water.

Melon




























Rasulullah s.a.w. said: "None of your women who are pregnant and eat of watermelon will fail to produce off spring that is good in countenance and good in character."

Milk

















Rasulullah s.a.w. said that milk wipes away heat from the heart just as the finger wipes away sweat from the brow. It strengthens the back, improved the brain, renews vision and drives away forgetfulness.

Mushroom




























Rasulullah s.a.w. said that mushroom is a good cure for the eyes; it also serves as a form of birth control and arrests paralysis. Not all mushroom are edible.

Olive Oil


Excellent treatment for skin and hair, delays old age, and treats inflammation of the stomach. Good in patients with heart diseases.

Pomegranate

















Rasulullah s.a.w. said it cleanses you of Satan and evil aspirations for 40 days.

Vinegar




























A food Rasulullah s.a.w. used to eat with olive oil. [That's now a fashion in elite Italian Restaurants]

Water




























Rasulullah s.a.w said the best drink in this world is water, when you are thirsty drink it by sips and not gulps, gulping produces sickness of the liver.

Malaria vaccine closer than ever, scientists say

AFP - Wednesday, September 29 2010

WASHINGTON (AFP) - Scientists are closer than ever to rolling out the first malaria vaccine, which could be available in Africa by 2015, a co-inventor of the shot against the killer disease said Tuesday.

Advanced trials of the RTS,S vaccine against falciparum malaria, the deadliest strain of the disease, are under way in seven African countries and going "very well," said GlaxoSmithKline researcher Joe Cohen, who has been working on developing the vaccine for over 20 years.

"We believe we'll have the first data coming out of the trials in 2012, and, to make a long story short, we could have the first implementation in Africa between 2015 and 2016," he told AFP.

Cohen was speaking at a conference in Washington examining ways to beat malaria.

Some 12,000 children have already been enrolled in the Phase III trials in Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania, which have an enrollment target of 16,000 children.

The trial protocol varies from country to country -- even from village to village -- to take into account cultural sensitivities, but the basics are the same, said Ghana clinical epidemiologist Kwaku Poku Asante and Ally Olutu, a clinician from Kenya. The pair are working on the vaccine trials.

Children have to be in good health to join the trial, and will be followed up for 32 months, Asante said.

The results of smaller-scale phase II trials, which were announced in 2008, showed RTS,S was 53 percent effective against clinical falciparum malaria in young children and up to 65 percent effective in infants, the two groups most at-risk from the parasitic disease.

If RTS,S passes muster in the phase III trials and is licensed, it "will save many, many hundreds of thousands of lives in Africa," even if it is only partially effective against malaria, said Cohen.

But completing the vast trial in Africa and rolling out the vaccine will not signal an end to the process to develop malaria vaccines, he and other researchers warned.

RTS,S is only a stepping stone to wiping out the disease that threatens more than a third of the world's population and kills some 900,000 people a year, most of them in Africa.

According to organizers of the Washington conference, some 200 people die of malaria every hour of every day every year, most of them children in Africa.

Malaria is one of the main obstacles to socio-economic development in Africa, and developing effective vaccines against the disease would have an enormous effect on reducing its negative impact, they said.

"We must look ahead to an even better second generation vaccine, one that is maybe 80 percent effective," said Cohen.

"That vaccine could address the malaria parasites that are prevalent elsewhere in the world, such as Asia and Latin America, where the plasmodium vivax parasite predominates."

But he worried the global economic slump could put the brakes on malaria vaccine research.

"The financial crisis has had a big impact on the package of money that's available," said Cohen.

"Vaccines against other diseases that are ready to be implemented in Africa are being delayed because financing is not available," he added, warning the same could happen to RTS,S if there is no money available for a wide-scale roll-out after it is approved.

PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) director Christian Loucq urged investors from the public and private sectors who teamed up to help make the RTS,S more than just a glint in Cohen's eye to keep investing in malaria research even after the first vaccine becomes reality.

Funding is needed, for instance, to develop a way to "protect the mosquito," said Loucq.

Mosquitoes get the malaria parasite when they bite an infected person, and then pass it back into the human chain when they bite someone else, Loucq explained.

"If you can effectively and widely prevent transmission from human to mosquitoes, you will prevent transmission of the disease. We believe that is our biggest hope for achieving our ultimate goal -- eliminating malaria -- but that's not going to happen before 2025," he said.

"In the meantime, if we forget to keep investing in research we might, like we did in the '60s, once again lose the battle against malaria."

Senarai Daftar Kuliah Anatomi FK USU

Kuliah Anatomi Blok Basics Biomedical Sciences: Anatomy (FK USU-Batch 2010)

Osteologi

(1) Anatomi tulang ekstremitas superior:
- Istilah dalam osteologi (BBS AO K01&K02-Anatomy)
- Tulang ekstremitas superior dan tulang pada sendi bahu (BBS AO K01&K02-Anatomy):
*Tulang-tulang yang termasuk gelang bahu
*Tulang brachium
*Tulang-tulang antebrachium
*Tulang-tulang carpal
*Tulang-tulang metacarpal & phalanges manus
- Articulatio (BBS AO K01&K02-Anatomy):
*Articulatio humeri, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio cubiti, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio carpo-metacarpal, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio carpo-phalangeal, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio interphalangea, ligamentum & pergerakannya

(2) Anatomi tulang ekstremitas inferior:
- Tulang-tulang ekstremitas inferior (BBS AO K03&K04-Anatomy):
*Os Femur
*Os Patella
*Os Tibia
*Os Fibula
*Os Tarsalia
*Os Metatarsalia
*Os Phalanges pedis
- Articulatio (BBS AO K03&K04-Anatomy):
*Articulatio Coxae, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio Genu, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio Tarso-metatarsal, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio Metatarsal-phalangea, ligamentum & pergerakannya terutama pada ibu jari

(3) Anatomi Cranium:
- Pembagian cranium (BBS AO K05&K06-Anatomy):
*Nama bagian-bagian tulang cranium
*Nama-nama lubang pada tulang cranium serta bagian penting yang melaluinya

(4) Anatomi tulang truncus:
- Columna vertebralis & tulang thoraks (BBS AO K07&K08-Anatomy):
*Vertebra Cervicalis
*Vertebra Thoracalis
*Vertebra Lumbalis
*Os Sacrum
*Os Coccygeus
*Os Sternum
- Persendian (BBS AO K07&K08-Anatomy):
*Articulatio pada Condylus occipitalis, os Atlas, os Episthropheus & vertebra lainnya
*Ligamentum pada articulatio Atlanto-occipitalis, Atlanto-axialis & Collumna vertebralis
*Gerakan-gerakan pada sendi tersebut
*Lengkungan pada Collumna vertebralis
*Articulatio Costo-vertebralis
*Ligamentum pada articulatio Costo-vertebralis

Ekstremitas Superior

(1) Anatomi ekstremitas superior:
- Otot-otot (BBS AO K09&K10-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot Trunco-cingulo
*Otot-otot Cingulo-extremitatum
*Otot-otot Trunco-extremitatum
*Otot-otot pada Antebrachium
*Otot-otot, tendon & jaringan ikat pada carpus
*Otot-otot, tendon & jaringan ikat pada manus
*Otot-otot, tendon & jaringan ikat pada digitum manus

(2) Vaskularisasi dan inervasi:
- Regio Axilla (BBS AO K11&K12-Anatomy):
*Dinding fossa axillaris
*Isi fossa axillaris
- Innervasi (BBS AO K11&K12-Anatomy):
*Plexus Brachialis
*Nervus Axillaris
*Nervus Radialis
*Nervus Medianus
*Nervus Ulnaris
*Nervus Musculocutaneus
- Vaskularisasi (BBS AO K11&K12-Anatomy):
*Perjalanan pembuluh ateri, vena & lymph

Extremitas inferior

(1) Anatomi ekstremitas inferior:
- Batas regio femoris (BBS AO K13&K14-Anatomy):
*Batas atas (depan, belakang), bawah
*Regio subinguinal
*Regio femoris posterior
*Regio femoris anterior
*Regio poplitea
- Otot-otot (BBS AO K13&K14-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot yang berasal dari os Ischii serta insertionya
*Otot-otot paha yang berasal dari bagian abdomen/ pelvis serta insertionya
*Otot-otot paha yang berasal dari os pubis serta insertionya
*Otot-otot paha yang berasal dari os femur serta insertionya
*Tendon & otot-otot pada fossa poplitea & regi Genu
*Otot-otot ventral cruris
*Otot-otot dorsal cruris
*Tendon & ligamentum pada pergelangan kaki
*Tendon & otot-otot pada pedis bagian dorsal & plantar sampai digitae

(2) Vaskularisasi dan inervasi:
- Innervasi (BBS AO K15&K16-Anatomy):
*Persarafan sensorik & motorik paha depan & belakang
*Persarafan sensorik & motorik cruris & pedis
- Vaskularisasi (BBS AO K15&K16-Anatomy):
*Perjalanan pembuluh arteri, vena & lymph

Kepala dan Leher

(1) Anatomi kepala dan leher:
- Regio di leher (BBS AO K17&K18-Anatomy):
*Regio yang terdapat di leher
*Pembagian Trigonum colli
*Alat-alat penting yang terdapat/ melalui pada Trigonum colli
*Thyroid glang
*Parathyroid gland
- Otot-otot kepala (BBS AO K17&K18-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot kepala
*Origo & insertio otot kepala
- Otot-otot muka (BBS AO K17&K18-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot muka
*Origo & insertio otot muka
- Otot-otot leher (BBS AO K17&K18-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot leher
*Origo & insertio otot-otot leher

(2) Vaskularisasi dan inervasi:
- Vaskularisasi (BBS AO K19&K20-Anatomy):
*Vaskularisasi pada leher dan kepala
- Inervasi (BBS AO K19&K20-Anatomy):
*Persarafan oleh otot-otot kepala, muka & leher

Thorax

(1) Dinding thoraks:
- Otot dinding thoraks (BBS AO K21&22-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot intercostalis
*Otot-otot dinding dada
- Perdarahan dan persarafan dinding thoraks (BBS AO K21&K22-Anatomy)

(2) Jantung:
- Pericardium (BBS AO K21&K22-Anatomy):
*Struktur pericardium
*Cavum pericardium
- Struktur jantung (BBS AO K21&K22-Anatomy):
*Pembagian ruang jantung
*Otot jantung
*Proyeksi jantung pada dinding thorax
- Vaskularisasi jantung (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy):
*Arteri coronaria dengan percabangannya
*Vena cordis dengan percabangannya
- Innervasi jantung (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy):
*Sistem konduktiviti
*Persarafan otot jantung

(3) Paru & mediastinum:
- Pleura (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy):
*Struktur pleura
*Cavum pleura
*Vaskularisasi pleura
*Inervasi pleura
*Aliran lymphe pleura
- Hilus pulmonalis (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy):
*Struktur dan alat-alat yang dilaluinya
- Pulmo (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy):
*Bagian-bagian pulmo
*Vaskularisasi pulmo
*Inervasi pulmo
*Aliran lymphe pulmo
- Proyeksi paru pada dinding thorax (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy)

(4) Thymus:
- Anatomi thymus (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy):
*Struktur thymus
*Thymus sebagai organ endokrin

Abdomen

(1) Anatomi abdomen:
- Otot-otot (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot dinding perut
*Vagina musc. rectus abdominis
*Linea alba
*Linea semilunaris
*Linea semicircularis
*Trigonum lumbale
- Tisu Penghubung (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Ligamentum inginale
*Ligamentum interoveolare
*Anulus inguinalis superficialis
*Anulus inguinalis profundus
*Canalis inguinalis
- Vaskularisasi dinding perut (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)
- Innervasi sensorik & motorik otot-otot dinding perut (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)
- Peritoneum (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Peritoneum parietale
*Peritoneum viscerale

(2) Organ abdomen:
- Gaster (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Anatomi gaster
- Intestinum (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Intestinum tenue & crassum
- Pancreas (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Anatomi pancreas
- Hepar (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Anatomi hepar
- Lien (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Anatomi lien

Pelvis

(1) Embryology (Organogenesis):
- Pembentukan & Perkembangan alat kencing (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Pembentukan ginjal
*Pembentukan ureter & vesica urinaria
*Kelainan perkembangan ginjal

(2) Renal:
- Struktur renal (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Bentuk renal
*Letak renal
*Bagian-bagian renal
*Pembungkus renal
- Hubungan renal dengan alat sekitarnya (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Tisu penghubung yang menghubungkan renal dengan alat sekitar
*Vaskularisasi, persarafan & aliran limfa renal

(3) Ureter:
- Struktur (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Panjang ureter
*Diameter ureter
*Tempat-tempat penyempitan pada lumen ureter
*Vaskularisasi, persarafan & aliran limfa ureter

(4) Vesica urinaria:
- Struktur vesica urinaria (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Bentuk vesica urinaria
*Ukuran vesica urinaria
*Letak vesica urinaria
*Bagian-bagian vesica urinaria
- Otot-otot (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Arah serabut otot pada dinding vesica urinaria
- Vaskularisasi, persarafan & aliran limfa vesica urinaria (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy)

(5) Urethra:
- Urethra laki-laki & perempuan (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy)

(6) Adrenal gland:
- Pembagian zona kelenjar adrenal (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy)

Susunan Saraf Pusat

(1) Medulla spinalis & Medulla oblongata:
- Penampang melintang medulla spinalis & medulla oblongata (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Tractus Ascendens (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Tractus Descendens (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Pembuluh darah (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Ganglion spinalis & Radices spinalis (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Pembungkus Medulla spinalis (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Persarafan radikularis (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(2) Cerebellum & Pons:
- Pedunculus cerebellaris (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Cortex cerebellaris (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Neuronal Circuit (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Tractus saraf (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(3) Diencephalon:
- Epithalamus & Pineal (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Thalamus (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Hypothalamus (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Hypophysis (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(4) Telencephalon:
- Organisasi hemispheri cerebri (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Lobus cerebri (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Basal ganglia (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Proyeksi saraf (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(5) Sistem pembuluh darah:
- Arteri (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Vena (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(6) Sistem Liquor Cerebrospinalis:
- Meningen (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Ventrikel (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Sinus duramatriks (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

Susunan saraf tepi

(1) Nervi spinalis:
- Plexus Cervicalis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy):
*Rami Posterior
- Plexus Brachialis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy):
*Pars Supraclavicularis
*Pars Infraclavicularis
- Fasciculus Lateralis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Fasciculus Medialis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Fasciculus Posterior (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Saraf batang tubuh (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Plexus Lumbosacralis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Plexus Sacralis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)

(2) Sistem saraf vegetatif:
- Truncus symphateticus (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Saraf-saraf vegetatif (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Control System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Central Nervous System

(1) Anatomical Structure of Central Nervous System:
- Medulla Spinalis (CS K03-Anatomy):
*Substansia Grisea
*Tractus Ascendens
*Tractus Descendens
*Pembuluh darah
*Ganglion spinalis & Radices Posterior
*Pembungkus Medulla Spinalis
*Persarafan Radikularis
- Cerebellum (CS K04-Anatomy):
*Pedunculus Cerebellaris
*Cortex Cerebellaris
*Sirkuit Neuronal
*Tractus Nervus
- Diencephalon (CS K04-Anatomy):
*Perkembangan Proencephalon
*Epithalamus
*Thalamus dorsalis
*Thalamus ventralis/ subthalamus
*Hypothalamus
*Hypophysis
- Telencephalon (CS K05-Anatomy):
*Organisasi hemispheri
*Corpus amygdala
*Cortex hippocampus
*Cortex striatum
*Insula
*Neocortex
*Lobus frontalis
*Lobus parietalis
*Lobus temporalis
*Lobus occipitalis
- Sistem Pembuluh Darah (CS K06-Anatomy):
*Arteri
*Vena
- Sistem Liquor Cerebrospinalis (CS K06-Anatomy):
*Plexus choroideus
*Ependyma
*Meningen

Peripheral Nervous System

(1) Anatomical Structure of Peripheral Nervous System:
- Nervi Spinalis (CS K18-Anatomy):
*Saraf tepi
*Plexus
*Plexus cervicalis: Rami posterior
*Plexus brachialis: Pars supraclavicularis, Pars infraclavicularis
*Fasciculus lateralis
*Fasciculus medialis
*Fasciculus posterior
*Saraf batang tubuh
*Plexus lumbosacralis
*Plexus sacralis
- Sistem Saraf Vegetatif (CS K19-Anatomy):
*Truncus symphatheticus
*Saraf-saraf vegetatif

Endocrine System

(1) Anatomical Structure of Endocrine Organs:
- Organs of Endocrine (CS K28-Anatomy):
*Hypophysis & Pituitary
*Thyroid gland
*Parathyroid gland
*Pineal gland
*Pancreas
*Adrenal gland




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Reproductive System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Struktur Organ dan Fisiologi Sistem Reproduksi serta Kehamilan Normal

(1) Struktur Organ Reproduksi Lelaki dan Wanita:
- Anatomi Organ Reproduksi Wanita (RS K01-Anatomy):
*Embriologi dari organ reproduksi wanita
*Anatomi pelvis: Tulang pelvis, sendi dan otot pelvis, bidang dan diameter pelvis, bentuk pelvis, ukuran pelvis dan estimasi klinis
*Otot-otot diaphragma pelvis
*Celah-celah pinggul: Rongga peritoneum, celah sub peritoneal, fossa ischiorectalis
*Organ reproduksi wanita eksternal: Mons pubis, labia mayora, labia minora, clitoris, glandula vestibuli mayor, perineum
*Organ reproduksi wanita internal: Uterus, vagina, tuba falopii, ovarium
*Vaskularisasi dan persarafan organ reproduksi
*Payudara: Anatomi, vaskularisasi, kelenjar lymph
- Anatomi Organ Reproduksi Lelaki (RS K03-Anatomy):
*Embriologi/ perkembangan organ reproduksi lelaki
*Gonad: Testis
*Saluran: Ekstratestikular, intratestikular
*Kelenjar: Epidydimis, vesikula seminalis, prostat, vestibula bulbourethralis (cowperi)




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Growth and Development (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Tumbuh kembang neonatus dan perinatal

(1) Pertumbuhan dan perkembagan:
- Perkembangan tulang dan sistem saraf (GDS K04&K05-Anatomy):
*Osifikasi tulang tengkorak
*Osifikasi tulang panjang
*Perkembangan otak




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Musculo-Skeletal System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Struktur Organ Muskulo-Skeletal

(1) Anatomi alat gerak:
- Anatomi Umum (MSS K01-Anatomy):
*Osteologi: Tulang dan jenis-jenisnya, istilah bangunan tulang, jenis-jenis hubungan antara tulang.
*Arthrologi: Prinsip mekanik gerakan pada persendian, jenis-jenis persendian, struktur persendian dan bahagian-bahagiannya.
*Myologi: Otot dan jenis-jenisnya, struktur jaringan otot skelet, selubung dan perlekatannya, morfologi otot skelet, jenis-jenis otot skelet menurut bentuk, susunan serabut dan bahagiannya, bentuk dan fungsi bursa mukosa dan vagina tendinosa.
- Anatomi ekstremiti superior (MSS K02-Anatomy):
*Tulang-tulang pada ekstremiti superior: Tulang-tulang yang termasuk gelang bahu, tulang-tulang antebrachium, tulang-tulang carpal, metacarpal dan phalanges manus.
*Articulatio: Articulatio pada ekstremiti superior.
*Otot-otot: Otot-otot pada ekstremitas superior.
*Region Axilla: Dinding fossa axillaris dan isi fossa axillaris.
*Innervasi: Persarafan pada ekstremiti superior.
*Vaskularisasi: Perjalanan arteri, vena, dan limfe pada ekstremitas superior.
- Anatomi ekstremiti Inferior (MSS K02-Anatomy):
*Batas region femoris: Batas atas regio femoris, batas belakang regio femoris, batas depan regio femoris dan batas bawah regio femoris. Regio subinguinal, regio femoris inferior dan posterior, regio poplitea.
*Tulang-tulang pada ekstremiti inferior: Tulang-tulang pada ekstremiti inferior.
*Articulatio: Articulatio pada ekstremiti inferior.
*Otot-otot: Otot-otot pada ekstremiti inferior.
*Innervasi: Persarafan pada ekstremiti inferior.
*Vaskularisasi: Perjalanan arteri, vena, dan limfe pada ekstremitas inferior.




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Cardio-Vascular System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Struktur Anatomi, Histologi Dan Fisiologi Kardio-Vaskular

(1) Struktur Sistem Kardiovaskular:
- Embriologi dan Anatomi Sistem Kardio-Vaskular (CVS K01.1&K01.2-Anatomy):
*Embriologi cardio-vascular system: Pembentukan tube/ saluran jantung.
*Embriologi cardio-vascular system: Pembentukan loop/ simpul jantung; Truncus arteriosus; Bulbus/conus cordis; ventricle; atrium; sinus venosus.
*Embriologi cardio-vascular system: Pembentukan septum/ sekat jantung; Septum pada atrium-septum primum-septum spurium-septum sekundum; septum ventrikel; septum pada trunkus dan konus; septum atrioventricular canal.
*Embriologi cardio-vascular system: Pembentukan katup bikuspid, trikuspid, katup semilunar. Fisiologi otot jantung, Siklus jantung/ Cardiac cycle, otot jantung sebagai pompa/ pengepam.
*Perubahan sistem sirkulasi janin menjadi sistem sirkulasi normal.
*Anatomi cardio-vascular system: Letak jantung, ruang, sekat, dan katup-katup jantung dan hubungannya dengan organ lain didalam rongga toraks.
*Anatomi cardio-vascular system: Sistem konduksi jantung.
*Anatomi cardio-vascular system: Sistem sirkulasi darah besar dan sirkulasi kecil, serta sistem arteri, sistem vena, sistem limfatik, dan hubungan antara ketiganya.
*Anatomi cardio-vascular system: Sistem pembuluh darah arteri koroner dan vena jantung.




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Respiratory System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Struktur Anatomi, Histologi Dan Fisiologi Sistem Respirasi

(1) Organogenesis:
- Pembentukan & Perkembangan Tracheobronchi dengan cabang-cabangnya (RTS K01-Anatomy)

(2) Anatomi saluran nafas:
- Pembentukan dan perkembangan paru (RTS K01-Anatomy)
- Trachea (RTS K01-Anatomy):
*Struktur trachea
*Percabangan trachea
- Bronchus (RTS K01-Anatomy):
*Struktur broncus
*Percabangan broncus sampai ke alveolus
- Pleura (RTS K01-Anatomy):
*Struktur pleura
*Cavum pleura
*Vaskularisasi, inervasi, dan aliran limfe pleura
- Hilus Pulmonalis (RTS K01-Anatomy):
* Organ-organ yang dilaluinya

(3) Anatomi Paru:
- Pulmo (RTS K01-Anatomy):
*Bahagian-bahagian pulmo
*Vaskularisasi, inervasi, dan aliran limfe pulmo
*Proyeksi paru pada dinding thorax
*Menentukan batas dan bentuk dada
- Struktur Anatomi Dinding Dada (RTS PR01-Anatomy):
*Letak dan struktur kulit, fascia dan otot-otot pada dinding dada
*Struktur diafragma
- Struktur Anatomi Paru (RTS PR03-Anatomy):
*Struktur trachea dan main bronchus kiri dan kanan serta struktur-struktur pendukungnya.
*Struktur pleura visceralis dan lanjutannya.
*Struktur paru dan struktur-struktur pendukungnya.




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Genito-Urinary System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Struktur Organ Sistem Genito-urinari

(1) Embryologi (organogenesis):
- Pembentukan dan perkembangan alat kencing (GUS K01-Anatomy):
*Pembentukan ginjal
*Pembentukan ureter dan vesica urinaria
*Kelainan perkembangan ginjal




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Gastro-Intestinal System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Struktur Organ Sistem Gastro-Intestinal

(1) Embryologi (Organogenesis):
- Pembentukan dan perkembangan alat-alat saluran cerna (GIS K01-Anatomy):
*Perkembangan alat-alat yang berasal dari foregut
*Perkembangan alat-alat yang berasal dari midgut
*Perkembangan alat-alat yang berasal dari hindgut

(2) Struktur anatomi sistem gastro-intestinal:
- Pembahagian rongga mulut (GIS K01-Anatomy):
*Cavum oris propil
*Vestibulum oris
- Struktur anatomi gigi (GIS K01-Anatomy):
*Bahagian-bahagian dari gigi
*Jenis-jenis gigi
- Struktur anatomi kelenjar liur (GIS K01-Anatomy):
*Jenis-jenis kelenjar liur
*Bahagian-bahagian dari kelenjar liur major
- Struktur anatomi articulatio dan otot-otot mastikasi (GIS K01-Anatomy):
*Bahagian-bahagian dari articulatio temporo-mandibularis
*Otot-otot yang berperanan pada proses mastikasi
- Struktur anatomi pharynx dan oesophagus (GIS K01-Anatomy):
*Batas-batas pharynx
*Bahagian-bahagian pharynx
*Otot-otot yang membentuk dinding pharynx
*Bahagian-bahagian oesophagus
- Struktur anatomi dinding perut dan peritoneum (GIS K01-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot dinding perut
*Vagina musc. recti abdominis
*Linea alba
*Linea semilunaris
*Linea semicircularis
*Trigonum lumbale
*Umbilicus
*Ligamen inguinal
*Ligamen interfoveolare
*Anulus inguinalis superficialis
*Anulus inguinalis profundus
*Canalis inguinale
*Inervasi motorik dan sensorik
*Vaskularisasi dinding perut
*Peritoneum parietale dan visceral
*Alat-alat intraperitoneal & retroperitoneal
*Mesenterium
*Mesocolon transversum
*Messosigmoideum
*Omentum major
*Omentum minor
*Ligamen phrenicolienale
*Ligamen gastrolienale
*Bursa omentalis
*Foramen epiploicum
- Struktur anatomi gaster (GIS K02-Anatomy):
*Gaster, bentuknya, letaknya, dan alat penggantungannya
*Bahagian permukaan dalamdan permukaan luar gaster, spincter pada gaster
*Hubungan gaster dengan alat sekitarnya
- Struktur anatomi intestinum (GIS K02-Anatomy):
*Duodenum, bahagian-bahagiannya, dan gambaran permukaan dalamnya
*Hubungan duodenum dengan alat sekitarnya
*Jejunum dan ileum
*Pembagian intestinum, hubungan dengan peritoneum dan lapisan-lapisannya
*Perbezaan jejunum dan ileum
*Caecum, appendix vermicularis, colon ascenden, colon descenden, colon sigmoid, dan rectum
*Perbezaan intestinum tenue & crassum
- Hepar, vesica vellea, pancreas, & lien (GIS K02-Anatomy):
*Permukaan dan tepi hepar, lobus & segmentum
*Kedudukan hepar dengan alat-alat sekitarnya
*Sirkulasi darah di hepar dan pembuluh darah yang keluar masuk hepar
*Porta hepatis dan alat-alat yang melaluinya
*Bahagian dan letak vesica fellea serta salurannya
*Bahagian dan letak pancreas serta salurannya
*Bahagian lien, letak dan alat penggantungnya
- Vascularisasi, innervasi & aliran lymph alat-alat dalam perut (GIS K02-Anatomy):
*Cabang-cabang aorta abdominalis dan distribusinya
*Vena porta dan pembuluh darah vena lain di abdomen
*Saraf simpatis dan parasimpatis di perut
*Aliran limfe abdomen




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Special Sense System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Struktur makroskopik dan mikroskopik sistem penglihatan

(1) Anatomi sistem penglihatan:
- Embriologi/ Organogenesis (SSS K01-Anatomy):
*Perkembangan komponen-komponen bola mata
*Pembentukan dan perkembangan glandula lacrimalis
*Kelainan perkembangan bola mata dan glandula lacrimalis

Struktur organ pada sistem Telinga Hidung dan Tekak (THT)

(1) Anatomi THT:
- Pembentukan dan perkembangan auris externa, media & interna serta kelainan perkembangan alat pendengaran (SSS K22-Anatomy)
- Jenis pengecapan dan lokasi pengecapan (SSS K23-Anatomy):
*Jenis pengecapan yang umum dan lain-lain
*Lokasi pengecapan
*Penyebaran pengecapan
*Saraf pengecapan
*Jenis pucuk pengecapan dan spesifikasinya
- Struktur anatomi daerah tempat penghiduan (SSS K23-Anatomy):
*Besar daerah hidung tempat penghiduan
*Saraf penghiduan
*Lokasi dan penyebarannya
*Bentuk pucuk penghidu
*Pucuk penghidu dan penyebarannya




Kuliah Anatomi Blok Brain and Mind System (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Struktur dan Fungsi Sistem Saraf Pusat dan Perifer

(1) Formatio Reticularis:
- Dasar-dasar struktural formatio retikularis (BMS K01&P01-Anatomy):
*Daerah formatio reticularis
*Posisi columna lateralis, medialis & mediana formatio reticularis di dalam batang otak
*Proyeksi aferen dan eferen formatio reticularis

(2) Sistem Limbik:
- Dasar-dasar struktural sistem limbik (BMS K01&P01-Anatomy):
*Daerah sistem limbik
*Gyrus subcalosus, gyrus cinguli, parahippocampalis, formatio hippocampi, nucleus amygdala, gyrus corpus mammilare, dan nucleus anterior thalami
* Jaras penghubung sistem limbik, alveus, fimbria, fornix, tractus mammilothalamicus, dan stria terminalis




Senarai Daftar Kuliah Blok Basics Biomedical of Sciences in Elective (FK USU-Batch 2007)

(1) Pendahuluan Anatomi:
- Posisi anatomi (BBS E K01-Anatomy)
- Arah dan bidang anatomi (BBS E K01-Anatomy)

- Istilah dalam osteologi (BBS E K01-Anatomy)
- Persendian (BBS E K01-Anatomy)

(2) Cranium:
- Anatomi Cranium (BBS E K02-Anatomy):
*Nama bahagian-bahagian tulang cranium
*Nama-nama lubang pada tulang cranium serta bahagian penting yang melaluinya

(3) Kepala dan leher:
- Anatomi kepala dan leher (BBS E K03-Anatomy):
*Regio yang terdapat di leher
*Pembahagian Trigonum colli
*Alat-alat penting yang terdapat/ melalui pada Trigonum colli
*Thyroid gland
*Parathyroid gland
*Otot-otot kepala
*Origo dan insertio otot kepala
*Otot-otot muka
*Origo dan insertio otot muka
*Otot-otot leher
*Origo dan insertio otot-otot leher
*Vaskularisasi pada leher dan kepala
*Persarafan oleh otot-otot kepala, muka dan leher

(4) Ekstremiti:
- Dinding fossa axillaris (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Isi fossa axillaris (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Plexus Brachialis (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Nervus Axillaris (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Nervus Radialis (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Nervus Medianus (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Nervus Ulnaris (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Nervus Musculocutaneus (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Perjalanan pembuluh arteri, vena, dan limfa (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Persarafan sensorik dan motorik paha depan dan belakang (BBS E K04-Anatomy)
- Persarafan sensorik dan motorik cruris dan pedis (BBS E K04-Anatomy)

(5) Batang tubuh, thoraks, dan abdomen:
- Vertebra Cervical (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Vertebra Thorax (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Vertebra Lumbar (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Os Sacrum (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Os Coccyx (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Os Sternum (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Articulatio pada Condylus occipitalis, os Atlas, os Episthropheus, vertebra lainnya (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Ligamentum pada Articulatio (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Atlanto-occipitalis, Atlanto-axialis, dan Collumna vertebralis (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Gerakan-gerakan pada sendi tersebut (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Lengkungan pada Collumna vertebralis (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Articulatio Costo-vertebralis (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Ligamentum pada Articulatio Costo-vertebralis (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Perdarahan dan persarafan dinding thoraks (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Arteri Coronaria dengan percabangannya (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Sistem konduktiviti (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Persarafan otot jantung (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Otot-otot dinding perut (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Vagina musculus rectus abdominis, Linea alba, Linea semilunaris, Linea semicircularis, Trigonum lumbale (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Ligamentum inguinal (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Ligamentum interoveolare (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Anulus inguinalis superficialis (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Anulus inguinalis profundus (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Canalis inguinalis (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Vaskularisasi dinding perut (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Innervasi sensorik dan motorik otot-otot dinding perut (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Peritoneum parietale (BBS E K05-Anatomy)
- Peritoneum viscerale (BBS E K05-Anatomy)

(6) Susunan Saraf Pusat:
- Medulla Spinalis dan medulla oblongata (BBS E K06-Anatomy):
*Penampang melintang medulla spinalis dan medulla oblongata
*Tractus Ascendens
*Tractus Descendens
*Pembuluh darah
*Ganglion Spinalis dan Radices spinalis
*Pembungkus Medulla Spinalis
*Persarafan Radikularis
- Cerebellum dan Pons (BBS E K06-Anatomy):
*Pedunculus Cerebellaris
*Cortex cerebellaris
*Sirkuit Neuronal
- Tractus saraf (BBS E K06-Anatomy)
- Diencephalon (BBS E K06-Anatomy):
*Epithalamus dan Pineal
*Thalamus
*Hypothalamus
*Hypophysis
- Telencephalon (BBS E K06-Anatomy):
*Organisasi hemispheri cerebri
*Lobus cerebri
*Basal ganglia
*Projeksi saraf
- Sistem pembuluh darah: Arteri dan Vena (BBS E K06-Anatomy)
- Sistem Liquor Cerebrospinalis (BBS E K06-Anatomy):
*Meningen
*Ventrikel
*Sinus duramatriks

(7) Susunan Saraf Tepi:
- Nervi spinalis (BBS E K07-Anatomy)
- Plexus Cervical (BBS E K07-Anatomy):
*Rami Posterior
- Plexus Brachialis (BBS E K07-Anatomy):
*Pars Supraclavicularis
*Pars Infraclavicularis
- Fasciculus Lateralis (BBS E K07-Anatomy)
- Fasciculus Medialis (BBS E K07-Anatomy)
- Fasciculus Posterior (BBS E K07-Anatomy):
*Saraf batang tubuh
*Plexus lumbosacral
- Plexus Sacral (BBS E K07-Anatomy)
- Sistem saraf vegetatif (BBS E K07-Anatomy):
*Truncus symphatheticus
*Saraf-saraf vegetatif

Buah Jering

Buah Jering


General

Jering, is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to Southeast Asia. Its beans are a popular food in Indonesia (where they are known as jengkol), and are also consumed in Malaysia (where they are known as jering), Myanmar (where they are called da nyin thee) and in Southern Thailand, where it is called luk-nieng or luk neang. The large brown legumes are very popular and cooked as satay or curry, especially rendang, in Indonesia.

The beans are mildly toxic due to the presence of djenkolic acid, an amino acid, which causes djenkolism (jengkol bean poisoning). It causes "spasmodic pain, gout, urinary obstruction and acute renal failure". The condition mainly affects men, and is not determined by how the beans are prepared, and individuals can consume the beans on multiple occasions without incident, to develop renal failure on another occasion.

Scientific classification

- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Magnoliophyta
- Class: Magnoliopsida
- Order: Fabales
- Family: Fabaceae
- Genus: Archidendron
- Species: A. jiringa

Binomial name
Archidendron pauciflorum
(Benth.) I.C.Nielsen

Synonyms
Archidendron jiringa
Pithecellobium jiringa
Pithecellobium lobatum

Botanical name for buah jering is Archidendron Jiringa. Buah jering originated in Southeast Asia, it grows wild and also cultivated in Southeast Asia. Rarely grown outside Southeast Asia.

Jering are medium-sized trees that can reach 20 m in height. The bark is smooth and light grey in color. The leaves are compound, two pinnate up to 25 cm long, leaf stalks up to 6 cm long.

The leaflets are 8-25 cm ling, 4-5 cm wide, ovate to booing in shape, light green, shiny.

Young leave are soft, purplish red in color. Young leaf are normally produced on the whole tree at the same time.

Fruit is a legume, 5 cm wide, twisted in a spiral, purplish brown in color. Seeds large, testa yellowish when young, reddish brown when mature, the edible cotyledons are yellowish when young, becoming orange brown when mature.

Health benefits

Leaves are pounded and applied in chest pains, pains, skin ailments. Ashes obtained by burning the old leaves are applied on itch. Ashes obtained by burning the young leaves are applied on cuts, wounds.

Bark are pounded and applied on chest pains, pains, skin ailments, made into a gargle for treating gum pains, toothache.

Fruits are eaten at meal tome to treat diabetes, hypertension.

Basics Biomedical Sciences (Histology)

Senarai Daftar Kuliah Blok Basics Biomedical Sciences: Histology (FK USU-Batch 2010)

Histologi Dasar
(1) Histoteknik dan interpretasi sediaan histologi:
- Langkah umum mempelajari sel (BBS HS K01-Histology)
- Jenis mikroskop, cara kerja mikroskop, dan manfaat mikroskop (BBS HS K01-Histology)
- Metode mempelajari sel dengan pemprosesan jaringan dan pewarnaan, dan manfaat pewarnaan terhadap terhadap sel dan jaringan (BBS HS K01-Histology)
- Istilah-istilah yang digunakan dalam pengamatan preparat histologi dan histopatologi (BBS HS K01-Histology)


Organisasi sel
(1) Bentuk sel dan nukleus polaritas sel:
- Bentuk-bentuk sel (BBS HS K02-Histology)
- Nukleus normal dan abnormal (BBS HS K02-Histology)
- Organisasi sel dan peran fisiologisnya (BBS HS K02-Histology)


Cell junction
(1) Cell junction:
- Cell junctions classification (BBS HS K03-Histology)
- Occluding junction and its role in epithelial tissue (BBS HS K03-Histology)
- Anchoring junctions (Adherens junctions and Hemidesmosomes) and itsrole on connecting the cell with another cell or extracellular matrix (BBS HS K03-Histology)
- Communicating junctions and its role on forming a communicating network among cells (BBS HS K03-Histology)


Jaringan dasar & Organisasi jaringan dalam organ
(1) Jaringan epitel:
- Bentuk dan ciri khas epitel (BBS HS K04-Histology)
- Kekhususan permukaan sel (BBS HS K04-Histology)
- Jenis epitel (BBS HS K04-Histology)

(2) Jaringan ikat:
- Komponen jaringan ikat (BBS HS K04-Histology)
- Jenis jaringan ikat (BBS HS K04-Histology)

(3) Jaringan saraf:
- Sel saraf (BBS HS K04-Histology)
- Sel glia (BBS HS K04-Histology)

(4) Jaringan otot:
- Otot rangka (BBS HS K04-Histology)
- Otot jantung (BBS HS K04-Histology)
- Otot polos/ Otot licin (BBS HS K04-Histology)


Siklus & Replikasi sel
(1) Siklus sel dan regulasinya:
- Siklus sel sebagai sebuah rangkaian yang teratur yang menyebabkan replikasi sel (BBS HS K05&K06-Histology)
- Regulasi siklus sel (BBS HS K05&K06-Histology)
- Komponen-komponen sistem kontrol siklus sel (BBS HS K05&K06-Histology)
- Kontrol intrasellular siklus sel (BBS HS K05&K06-Histology)
- Kontrol ekstasellular (BBS HS K05&K06-Histology)
- Meiosis, Mitosis dan Sitokinesis (BBS HS K05&K06-Histology)
- Replikasi sel (BBS HS K05&K06-Histology)


Proliferasi dan Differensiasi sel
(1) Proliferasi dan differensiasi sel:
- Differensiasi embriologis (BBS HS K07-Histology)
- Mekanisme differensiasi (BBS HS K07-Histology)
- Differensiasi Ektoderm (BBS HS K07-Histology)
- Differensiasi Mesoderm (BBS HS K07-Histology)
- Differensiasi Endoderm (BBS HS K07-Histology)
- Proliferasi sel (BBS HS K07-Histology)


Apoptosis
(1) Pengertian apoptosis:
- Pengertian apoptosis (BBS HS K08-Histology)

(2) Perkembangan apoptosis:
- Perkembangan apoptosis (BBS HS K08-Histology)

(3) Perbezaan apoptosis dengan nekrosis:
- Perbezaan apoptosis dengan nekrosis (BBS HS K08-Histology)

(4) Mekanisme apoptosis:
- Mekanisme apoptosis (BBS HS K08-Histology)

(5) Morfologi sel apoptosis
- Morfologi sel apoptosis (BBS HS K08-Histology)

Basics Biomedical Sciences (Anatomy)

Senarai Daftar Kuliah Blok Basics Biomedical Sciences: Anatomy (FK USU-Batch 2010)

Osteologi
(1) Anatomi tulang ekstremitas superior:
- Istilah dalam osteologi (BBS AO K01&K02-Anatomy)
- Tulang ekstremitas superior dan tulang pada sendi bahu (BBS AO K01&K02-Anatomy):
*Tulang-tulang yang termasuk gelang bahu
*Tulang brachium
*Tulang-tulang antebrachium
*Tulang-tulang carpal
*Tulang-tulang metacarpal & phalanges manus
- Articulatio (BBS AO K01&K02-Anatomy):
*Articulatio humeri, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio cubiti, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio carpo-metacarpal, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio carpo-phalangeal, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio interphalangea, ligamentum & pergerakannya

(2) Anatomi tulang ekstremitas inferior:
- Tulang-tulang ekstremitas inferior (BBS AO K03&K04-Anatomy):
*Os Femur
*Os Patella
*Os Tibia
*Os Fibula
*Os Tarsalia
*Os Metatarsalia
*Os Phalanges pedis
- Articulatio (BBS AO K03&K04-Anatomy):
*Articulatio Coxae, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio Genu, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio Tarso-metatarsal, ligamentum & pergerakannya
*Articulatio Metatarsal-phalangea, ligamentum & pergerakannya terutama pada ibu jari

(3) Anatomi Cranium:
- Pembagian cranium (BBS AO K05&K06-Anatomy):
*Nama bagian-bagian tulang cranium
*Nama-nama lubang pada tulang cranium serta bagian penting yang melaluinya

(4) Anatomi tulang truncus:
- Columna vertebralis & tulang thoraks (BBS AO K07&K08-Anatomy):
*Vertebra Cervicalis
*Vertebra Thoracalis
*Vertebra Lumbalis
*Os Sacrum
*Os Coccygeus
*Os Sternum
- Persendian (BBS AO K07&K08-Anatomy):
*Articulatio pada Condylus occipitalis, os Atlas, os Episthropheus & vertebra lainnya
*Ligamentum pada articulatio Atlanto-occipitalis, Atlanto-axialis & Collumna vertebralis
*Gerakan-gerakan pada sendi tersebut
*Lengkungan pada Collumna vertebralis
*Articulatio Costo-vertebralis
*Ligamentum pada articulatio Costo-vertebralis


Ekstremitas Superior
(1) Anatomi ekstremitas superior:
- Otot-otot (BBS AO K09&K10-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot Trunco-cingulo
*Otot-otot Cingulo-extremitatum
*Otot-otot Trunco-extremitatum
*Otot-otot pada Antebrachium
*Otot-otot, tendon & jaringan ikat pada carpus
*Otot-otot, tendon & jaringan ikat pada manus
*Otot-otot, tendon & jaringan ikat pada digitum manus

(2) Vaskularisasi dan inervasi:
- Regio Axilla (BBS AO K11&K12-Anatomy):
*Dinding fossa axillaris
*Isi fossa axillaris
- Innervasi (BBS AO K11&K12-Anatomy):
*Plexus Brachialis
*Nervus Axillaris
*Nervus Radialis
*Nervus Medianus
*Nervus Ulnaris
*Nervus Musculocutaneus
- Vaskularisasi (BBS AO K11&K12-Anatomy):
*Perjalanan pembuluh ateri, vena & lymph


Extremitas inferior
(1) Anatomi ekstremitas inferior:
-Batas regio femoris (BBS AO K13&K14-Anatomy):
*Batas atas (depan, belakang), bawah
*Regio subinguinal
*Regio femoris posterior
*Regio femoris anterior
*Regio poplitea
- Otot-otot (BBS AO K13&K14-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot yang berasal dari os Ischii serta insertionya
*Otot-otot paha yang berasal dari bagian abdomen/ pelvis serta insertionya
*Otot-otot paha yang berasal dari os pubis serta insertionya
*Otot-otot paha yang berasal dari os femur serta insertionya
*Tendon & otot-otot pada fossa poplitea & regi Genu
*Otot-otot ventral cruris
*Otot-otot dorsal cruris
*Tendon & ligamentum pada pergelangan kaki
*Tendon & otot-otot pada pedis bagian dorsal & plantar sampai digitae

(2) Vaskularisasi dan inervasi:
- Innervasi (BBS AO K15&K16-Anatomy):
*Persarafan sensorik & motorik paha depan & belakang
*Persarafan sensorik & motorik cruris & pedis
- Vaskularisasi (BBS AO K15&K16-Anatomy):
*Perjalanan pembuluh ateri, vena & lymph


Kepala dan Leher
(1) Anatomi kepala dan leher:
- Regio di leher (BBS AO K17&K18-Anatomy):
*Regio yang terdapat di leher
*Pembagian Trigonum colli
*Alat-alat penting yang terdapat/ melalui pada Trigonum colli
*Thyroid glang
*Parathyroid gland
- Otot-otot kepala (BBS AO K17&K18-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot kepala
*Origo & insertio otot kepala
- Otot-otot muka (BBS AO K17&K18-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot muka
*Origo & insertio otot muka
- Otot-otot leher (BBS AO K17&K18-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot leher
*Origo & insertio otot-otot leher

(2) Vaskularisasi dan inervasi:
- Vaskularisasi (BBS AO K19&K20-Anatomy):
*Vaskularisasi pada leher dan kepala
- Inervasi (BBS AO K19&K20-Anatomy):
*Persarafan oleh otot-otot kepala, muka & leher


Thorax
(1) Dinding thoraks:
- Otot dinding thoraks (BBS AO K21&22-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot intercostalis
*Otot-otot dinding dada
- Perdarahan dan persarafan dinding thoraks (BBS AO K21&K22-Anatomy)

(2) Jantung:
- Pericardium: Struktur pericardium, Cavum pericardium (BBS AO K21&K22-Anatomy)
- Struktur jantung: Pembagian ruang jantung, otot jantung, proyeksi jantung pada dinding thorax (BBS AO K21&K22-Anatomy)
- Vaskularisasi jantung: Arteri coronaria dengan percabangannya, Vena cordis dengan percabangannya (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy)
- Innervasi jantung: Sistem konduktiviti, Persarafan otot jantung (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy)

(3) Paru & mediastinum:
- Pleura: Struktur pleura, cavum pleura, vaskularisasi pleura, inervasi pleura, aliran lymphe pleura (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy)
- Hilus pulmonalis: Struktur dan alat-alat yang dilaluinya (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy)
- Pulmo: Bagian-bagian pulmo, vaskularisasi pulmo, inervasi pulmo, aliran lymphe pulmo (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy)
- Proyeksi paru pada dinding thorax (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy)

(4) Thymus:
- Anatomi thymus: Struktur thymus, thymus sebagai organ endokrin (BBS AO K23&K24-Anatomy)


Abdomen
(1) Anatomi abdomen:
- Otot-otot (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Otot-otot dinding perut
*Vagina musc. rectus abdominis
*Linea alba
*Linea semilunaris
*Linea semicircularis
*Trigonum lumbale
- Jaringan ikat (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy):
*Ligamentum inginale
*Ligamentum interoveolare
*Anulus inguinalis superficialis
*Anulus inguinalis profundus
*Canalis inguinalis
- Vaskularisasi dinding perut (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)
- Innervasi sensorik & motorik otot-otot dinding perut (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)
- Peritoneum: Peritoneum parietale, Peritoneum viscerale (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)

(2) Organ abdomen:
- Gaster: Anatomi gaster (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)
- Intestinum: Intestinum tenue & crassum (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)
- Pancreas: Anatomi pancreas (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)
- Hepar: Anatomi hepar (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)
- Lien: Anatomi lien (BBS AO K25&K26-Anatomy)


Pelvis
(1) Embryology (Organogenesis):
- Pembentukan & Perkembangan alat kemih (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Pembentukan ginjal
*Pembentukan ureter & vesica urinaria
*Kelainan perkembangan ginjal

(2) Ren:
- Struktur ren: Bentuk, letak, bagian-bagiannya, pembungkus ren (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy)
- Hubungan ren dengan alat sekitarnya (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Jaringan ikat yang menghubungkan ren dengan alat sekitar
*Vaskularisasi, inervasi & aliran lymphe ren

(3) Ureter:
- Struktur (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Panjang, diameter
*Tempat-tempat penyempitan pada lumen ureter
*Vaskularisasi, inervasi & aliran lymphe ureter)

(4) Vesica urinaria:
- Struktur (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Bentuk, ukuran, letak, bagian-bagiannya
- Otot-otot (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy):
*Arah serabut otot pada dinding vesica urinaria
- Vaskularisasi, inervasi & aliran lymphe vesica urinaria (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy)

(5) Urethra:
- Urethra laki-laki & perempuan (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy)

(6) Adrenal gland:
- Pembagian zona kelenjar adrenal (BBS AO K27&K28-Anatomy)


Susunan Saraf Pusat
(1) Medulla spinalis & Medulla oblongata:
- Penampang melintang medulla spinalis & medulla oblongata (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Tractus Ascendens (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Tractus Descendens (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Pembuluh darah (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Ganglion spinalis & Radices spinalis (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Pembungkus Medulla spinalis (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Persarafan radikularis (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(2) Cerebellum & Pons:
- Pedunculus cerebellaris (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Cortex cerebellaris (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Neuronal Circuit (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Tractus saraf (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(3) Diencephalon:
- Epithalamus & Pineal (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Thalamus (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Hypothalamus (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Hypophysis (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(4) Telencephalon:
- Organisasi hemispheri cerebri (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Lobus cerebri (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Basal ganglia (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Proyeksi saraf (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(5) Sistem pembuluh darah:
- Arteri (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Vena (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)

(6) Sistem Liquor Cerebrospinalis:
- Meningx (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Ventrikel (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)
- Sinus duramatriks (BBS AO K29&K30-Anatomy)


Susunan saraf tepi
(1) Nervi spinalis:
- Plexus Cervicalis: Rami Posterior (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Plexus Brachialis: Pars Supraclavicularis, Pars Infraclavicularis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Fasciculus Lateralis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Fasciculus Medialis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Fasciculus Posterior (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Saraf batang tubuh (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Plexus Lumbosacralis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Plexus Sacralis (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)

(2) Sistem saraf vegetatif:
- Truncus symphateticus (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)
- Saraf-saraf vegetatif (BBS AO K31&K32-Anatomy)

Family Medicine

Senarai Daftar Kuliah Blok Family Medicine (FK USU-Batch 2007)

Basics in family medicine
(1) Principles of Family Medicine (an Overview):
- Continuity of care (FM K01-Community Health)
- Comprehensiveness (FM K01-Community Health)
- Coordination of care (FM K01-Community Health)
- Community (FM K01-Community Health)
- Family (FM K01-Community Health)


(2) Family as a unit of care:
- Family structure (FM K02-Community Health)
- Family functions (FM K02-Community Health)
- The family as the social context for health care (FM K02-Community Health)

(3) Family life cycle (Health care implications):
- Human life cycle (FM K03-Community Health)
- Stages of the family life cycle (FM K03-Community Health)
- Emotional process of transition (FM K03-Community Health)
- First order changes (FM K03-Community Health)
- Second order changes (FM K03-Community Health)
- Problems encountered at each stage of the cycle (FM K03-Community Health)
- Life stages and the impact of chronic illness (FM K03-Community Health)
- Opportunity in each patient encounter (FM K03-Community Health)

(4) Working with families:
- Biopsychosocial Model (FM K04-Community Health)
- How families work: Family systems theory (FM K04-Community Health)
- Interdependence (FM K04-Community Health)
- Boundaries (FM K04-Community Health)
- Triangulation (FM K04-Community Health)
- Family physician involvement with the family (FM K04-Community Health)

(5) Tools for Family Assessment:
- Family dynamic (FM K05-Community Health)
- Impact of illness on the family (FM K05-Community Health)
- Tools for family assessment (FM K05-Community Health)
- The family genogram (FM K05-Community Health)
- The family circle (FM K05-Community Health)
- The family APGAR (FM K05-Community Health)

(6) Home Care & Palliative Care:
- Who can benefit from a physician home visit (FM K06-Community Health)
- Skills needed for home care: Overcoming the fear of making home visit, initiating the home visit, specific home visit skills, caring for the caregiver (FM K06-Community Health)

(7) Peran Keluarga dalam penatalaksanaan TB paru:
- DOTS: Direct Observe Treatment Shortcourse (FM K07-Pulmonology)
- ISCT: International Standard TB Care (FM K07-Pulmonology)

(8) Gigitan arthropoda:
- Gigitan arthropoda (FM K08-Parasitology)


Dental Health
(1) Peran keluarga dalam penatalaksanaan kesehatan gigi:
- Peran keluarga dalam penatalaksanaan kesehatan gigi (FM K09-Dentistry)

(2) Penyakit sistemik yang mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi:
- Penyakit sistemik yang mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi (FM K10-Dentistry)

(3) Infeksi bakteri, jamur, virus mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi:
- Infeksi bakteri, jamur, virus mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi (FM K11-Dentistry)

(4) Manifestasi gangguan hormonal di rongga mulut:
- Manifestasi gangguan hormonal di rongga mulut (FM K12-Dentistry)


Health Economics
(1) Economic environment:
- Government programs: SJSN-Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional (FM K13-Community Health)
- Commercial Insurance Companies (FM K13-Community Health)
- Manage care plans (FM K13-Community Health)

(2) Sistem Pembiayaan dalam praktek dokter keluarga:
- Capitation system (FM K14-Community Health)
- Utilization Review (FM K14-Community Health)
- Risk Profit Sharing (FM K14-Community Health)
- Premi Calculation (FM K14-Community Health)

(3) Pharmacoeconomics:
- Pharmacoeconomics considerations: Cost benefit, Cost utility, Cost effectiveness (FM K15-Pharmacology)
- Rational prescribing & Prescribing cascade: Definition, How to avoid prescribing cascade, What to do in dealing with prescribing cascade. (FM K15-Pharmacology)

(4) Kebijakan Obat Nasional, Daftar Obat Esensial Nasional, Perudangan obat-obat bebas, OTC:
- Pengertian Daftar Obat Esensial Nasional (FM K16-Pharmacology)
- Perundangan obat (FM K16-Pharmacology)
- Penggolongan obat di Indonesia: Obat bebas, Obat bebas terbatas (FM K16-Pharmacology)
- Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan obat bebas dan obat bebas terbatas (FM K16-Pharmacology)

(5) Penentuan P-drug, Ambulatory drug therapy:
- Pengertian P-drug (FM K17-Pharmacology)
- Pemilihan obat sesuai kasus, contoh: Kasus infeksi, hipertensi (FM K17-Pharmacology)


Examinaning Small Children
(1) Special considerations in examining small children:
- Relieving anxiety (FM K18-Community Health)
- Tailoring your examination to the age of the child (FM K18-Community Health)
- History and initial observation (FM K18-Community Health)
- Order of the examination (FM K18-Community Health)
- Concluding the examinations (FM K18-Community Health)

(2) Manajemen Terpadu Balita Sakit:
- Tanda bahaya umum (FM K19-Pediatric)
- Batuk/ Sulit bernafas (FM K19-Pediatric)
- Diare (FM K19-Pediatric)
- Demam (FM K19-Pediatric)
- Masalah telinga (FM K19-Pediatric)
- Status gizi dan anemia (FM K19-Pediatric)
- Cara pemberian obat (FM K20-Pediatric)
- Konseling (FM K20-Pediatric)
- Pelayanan tindak lanjut (FM K20-Pediatric)

(3) Manajemen terpadu bayi muda:
- Kejang (FM K21-Pediatric)
- Gangguan nafas (FM K21-Pediatric)
- Hipotemi (FM K21-Pediatric)
- Infeksi bakteri (FM K21-Pediatric)
- Ikterus (FM K22-Pediatric)
- Diare (FM K22-Pediatric)
- Gangguan saluran cerna (FM K22-Pediatric)
- Berat Badan Lahir Rendah (FM K22-Pediatric)
- Tindakan/ Pengobatan (FM K22-Pediatric)
- Konseling (FM K22-Pediatric)

(4) Recommendations for pediatric prescribing:
- Special considerations (FM K23-Pharmacology)
- Adverse drug reactions (FM K23-Pharmacology)
- Therapeutic drug monitoring (FM K23-Pharmacology)


Caring for The Adolescent Patient
(1) Special considerations in caring for the adolescent patient:
- Adolescent: An under served population (FM K24-Community Health)
- Family physicians as providers of adolescent health care(FM K24-Community Health)
- Common health problems of adolescent (FM K24-Community Health)
- Problems with major psychosocial components (FM K24-Community Health)
- Approach to adolescent patient (FM K24-Community Health)
- Innovations in the delivery of services to adolescents: Adolescent health care clinics, School-based clinics/ Usaha kesehatan sekolah (FM K24-Community Health)


Approach to The Geriatric Patient
(1) Special considerations in caring the geriatric patient:
- Initial encounter (FM K25-Community Health)
- Assessing the geriatric patient (FM K25-Community Health)
- Addressing the problems of the geriatric patient (FM K25-Community Health)
- Home visit (FM K25-Community Health)
- Health maintenance (FM K25-Community Health)
- Longterm care placement (FM K25-Community Health)

(2) Penyakit-penyakit infeksi pada lansia (lanjut usia):
- Gejala klinis (FM K26-Internal Medicine)
- Pemeriksaan yang diperlukan (FM K26-Internal Medicine)
- Pengobatan (FM K26-Internal Medicine)
- Pencegahan (FM K26-Internal Medicine)

(3) Penyakit kardiovaskular dan muskuloskeletal pada lansia (lanjut usia):
- Gejala klinis (FM K27-Internal Medicine)
- Pemeriksaan yang diperlukan (FM K27-Internal Medicine)
- Pengobatan (FM K27-Internal Medicine)
- Pencegahan (FM K27-Internal Medicine)

(4) Recommendations for geriatric prescribing:
- Special considerations (FM K28-Pharmacology)
- Adverse drug reactions (FM K28-Pharmacology)
- Therapeutic drug monitoring (FM K28=Pharmacology)

(5) Penatalaksanaan nutrisi pada lansia (lanjut usia):
- Keperluan nutrisi pada lansia (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Perubahan pada lansia yang dapat mempengaruhi asupan makanan pada lansia (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Gangguan atau ketidak mampuan organ untuk mencerna pada lansia (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Gangguan sensorium yang dapat terganggu dalam mengkonsumsi asupan makanan (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Perubahan pada rongga mulut dan gigi pada lansia (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Perubahan pada sistem kardiovaskular, metabolik, saluran perkemihan, muskuloskeletal (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Lansia yang berisiko malnutrisi (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Keperluan kalori, karbohidrat, protein, lemak, vitamin, mineral, dan serat pada lansia (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Status hidrasi dan keperluan cairan pada lansia (FM K29-Dietetic)
- Perencanaan menu untuk lansia (FM K29-Dietetic)


Primary care of the athlete
(1) Physical performance berdasarkan tes-tes fisik:
- Physical fitness (FM K30-Physiology)
- Physical fitness test (FM K30-Physiology)
- Cardiopulmonary function test sewaktu kerja (FM K30-Physiology)
- Maximal aerobic power test (FM K30-Physiology)
- Submaximal test (FM K30-Physiology)
- Evaluasi hasil-hasil tes: VO2 max, anaerobic power, pengukuran muscular strength (FM K30-Physiology)

(2) Maximal aerobic power & anaerobic power:
- Maximal aerobic power: Pengertian, maximal aerobic power berhubungan dengan jenis kelamin dan umur, maximal energy output pada proses aerobic, kapasitas fungsional dari sirkulasi, VO2 (FM K31-Physiology)
- Anaerobic power: Pengertian, anaerobic power berhubungan dengan jenis kelamin dan umur (FM K31-Physiology)

(3) Physical performance:
- Sistem aerobic (FM K32-Physiology)
- Peranan latihan & sifat latihan (FM K32-Physiology)
- Peranan faktor psikis (FM K32-Physiology)
- Peranan faktor-faktor somatik (FM K32-Physiology)
- Peranan faktor lingkungan (FM K32-Physiology)
- Recovery dari sistem aerobik setelah kerja (FM K32-Physiology)

(4) Physical activity for health & fitness:
- Exercise prescription: Type of exercise, frequency of participation, duration of exercise bout, intensity of exercise bout (FM K33-Physiology)
- Before beginning any exercise program, complete medical education for: Women >40 years, men >50 years, anyone considered to be at high risk for coronary disease (FM K33-Physiology)
- Monitoring exercise intensity: Minimal heart rate, maximal heart rate, training heart rate range (FM K33-Physiology)
- Exercise program: Warm up and stretching, endurance training, cool down and stretching, flexibility training, resistance training, recreational activities (FM K33-Physiology)
- Rehabilitation exercise for disease: Rehabilitation exercise for cardiopulmonary, rehabilitation exercise for diabetes, rehabilitation exercise for cancer, rehabilitation exercise for renal disease, rehabilitation exercise for arthritis cystic fibrosis, rehabilitation exercise for obesity (FM K33-Physiology)

(5) Primary care of the athlete:
- Pre-participation sports examinations (FM K34-Community Health)
- Identifying the causes of athletic injuries: Predisposing factors, determining the mechanism of injury (FM K34-Community Health)
- Assessing the patient with recurrent injury (FM K34-Community Health)
- Evaluating acute injuries (FM K34-Community Health)
- Preventive measures (FM K34-Community Health)


Preventive care
(1) Preventive care (an overview):
- Scope of prevention in family practice (FM K35-Community Health)
- Implementing prevention (FM K35-Community Health)
- Education and counseling (FM K35-Community Health)
- Prevention oriented office system (FM K35-Community Health)
- Community advocacy for health (FM K35-Community Health)
- Wellness program in family practice (FM K35-Community Health)

(2) Prenatal care:
- Prenatal care in prespective (FM K36-Community Health)
- Prenatal care in the office: Preconception planing, diagnosing pregnancy, first trimester prenatal care (FM K36-Community Health)
- Establishing the expected date of confinement (FM K36-Community Health)
- History and risk assessment (FM K36-Community Health)
- Second trimester prenatal care (FM K36-Community Health)
- Family physicians and obstetric consultants (FM K36-Community Health)
- Genetic counseling: Analisis pedigree (FM K37-Biochemistry)
- Genetic counseling: Penilaian genetik-Wawancara, pemeriksaan fisik, diagnostik, perkahwinan sedarah dan aspek konseling genetik (FM K37-Biochemistry)

(3) Well Child Care and Well Adult Care:
- Risk factor identification (FM K38-Community Health)
- Immunizations (FM K38-Community Health)
- Diagnostic screening: Growth and development, cardiovascular screening, musculoskeletal screening, scoliosis, hearing screening, vision screening, caries prevention, laboratory screening (FM K38-Community Health)
- Education during well child visits (FM K38-Community Health)
- Injury and accident prevention (FM K38-Community Health)
- Risk factor identification (FM K38-Community Health)
- Immunizations foreign travel: Recommendations for immunizations (FM K38-Community Health)
- Screening for asymptomatic disease (FM K38-Community Health)
- Patient education (FM K38-Community Health)
- Implementing preventive care (FM K38-Community Health)
- Challenges in preventive care (FM K38-Community Health)

(4) Patient education & Health promotion:
- Improving patient compliance (FM K39-Community Health)
- A systemic approach to educating patients: Establish rapport, identify needs, assess potential barriers to compliance, negotiate a plan, instruct the patient in the pain, evaluate the understanding, monitor the patient, putting it all together (FM K39-Community Health)
- Assessment for health promotion (FM K39-Community Health)
- Health promotion counseling (FM K39-Community Health)
- Barriers to successful health promotion (FM K39-Community Health)
- Community health promotion (FM K39-Community Health)
- Specific health promotion strategies (FM K39-Community Health)


Medical record in family practice
(1) Medical record:
- Bentuk rekam medis: Family folder, buku kesehatan keluarga (FM K40-Community Health)
- Jenis-jenis rekam medis: Rekam medis manual dan rekam medis elektronik (FM K40-Community Health)
- Problem Oriented Medical Record: Data base/ information, problem list, plans/ interventions, progress notes/ SOAP (FM K40-Community Health)
- International Classification of Primary Care (FM K40-Community Health)


Complimentary Alternative Medicine
(1) Complimentary and Alternative Medicine:
- Scope and definition (FM K41-Community Health)
- Variety of modalities: Jamu, Herbal therapy, Homeopathy, Ayurvedic, Yoga, Angel healing, etc (FM K41-Community Health)
- Integrative medicine (FM K41-Community Health)

(2) Pengobatan tradisional:
- Pengertian pengobatan tradisional dan pengobatan tradisional (FM K42-Pharmacology)
- Penggolongan obat tradisional di Indonesia (FM K42-Pharmacology)
- Aspek farmakologi obat tradisional (FM K42-Pharmacology)
- Pengembangan obat tradisional (FM K42-Pharmacology)
- Yang perlu diperhatikan pada pemakaian obat tradisional (FM K42-Pharmacology)

(3) Manfaat Number Needed to Treat (NNT) dan Number Needed to Harm (NNH) pada pemberian obat:
- Pengertian Number Needed to Treat/ NNT dan Number Needed to Harm/ NNH (FM K43-Pharmacology)
- Manfaat Number Needed to Treat (NNT) dan Number Needed to Harm (NNH) pada pemberian obat (FM K43-Pharmacology)


Practice Management
(1) Managing a medical practice:
- Merancang klinik dokter keluarga: Merancang klinik, perekrutan dan penugasan, peningkatan kemampuan dan pengembagan staf, peralatan medis dan non medis, perencanaan-efisiensi-investasi, pemeliharaan-penyimpanan-pengamanan dan inventarisasi sarana (FM K44-Community Health)

(2) Konsultasi dan Rujukan dalam Praktek Dokter Keluarga:
- Rujukan medis (FM K45-Community Health)
- Rujukan kesehatan (FM K45-Community Health)
- Karakteristik konsultasi dan rujukan (FM K45-Community Health)
- Masalah dalam konsultasi dan rujukan (FM K45-Community Health)
- Tatacara konsultasi dan rujukan (FM K45-Community Health)
- Pembagian wewenang dan tanggungjawab (FM K45-Community Health)

(3) Penatalaksanaan pemeriksaan laboratorium:
- Pengertian (FM K46-Clinical Pathology)
- Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi hasil pemeriksaan laboratorium (FM K46-Clinical Pathology)
- Pemantapan kwalitas internal laboratorium: Tujuan, persyaratan, penatalaksanaan (FM K46-Clinical Pathology)

الفصل الأول ـ علم المعاني ـ (أ) الفصاحة والبلاغة

الفصل الأول ـ علم المعاني ـ (أ) الفصاحة والبلاغة

الفصاحة

(الفصاحة) في اللغة: بمعنى البيان والظهور، قالى تعالى: (وأخي هارون هو أفصح منّي لساناً)(1).

وفي الإصلاح: عبارة عن الالفاظ الظاهرة المعنى، المألوفة الإستعمال عند العرب.

وهي تكون وصفاً للكلمة والكلام والمتكلم يقال: كلمة فصيحة، وكلام فصيح، ومتكلم فصيح.


فصاحة الكلمة

فصاحة الكلمة هي: خلوص الكلمة من الأمور التالية:

1 ـ من تنافر الحروف، بأن لا تكون الكلمة ثقيلة على السمع، صعبة على اللسان، فنحو (هعخع): اسم بنت ترعاه الإبل، متنافر الحروف.

2 ـ ومن غرابة الاستعمال، وهي كون الكلمة غير ظاهرة المعنى، ولا مألوفة الاستعمال عند العرب، حتى لا يفهم المراد منها، لاشتراك اللفظ، أو للإحتياج الى مراجعة القواميس، فنحو (مسرّج) و) تكأكأتم) غريب.


قال الشاعر:

ومـــقلةً وحاجـــباً مـــرجــّجا وفــاحماً، ومــرسِناً مسرّجاً


وقال عيسى بن عمروا النحوي ـحين وقع من حماره واجتمع عليه الناس ـ (ما لكم تكأكأتم عليّ، كتكأكئكم على ذي جنة، إنفرقعوا عنّي).

3 ـ ومن مخالفة القياس: بأن تكون الكلمة شاذة، على خلاف القانون الصرفي المستنبط من كلام العرب، فنحو (الاجلل) مخالف للقياس، والقياس (الأجل) بالإدغام.


قال أبو النجم:

الـــــحمد لله الــعلي الاجــلل الواحــد الــفرد الــقديم الأول

4 ـ ومن الكراهة في السمع، بأن تكون الكلمة وحشية، تمجّها الأسماع، كما تمجّ الأصوات المنكرة، نحو) الجرشى) بمعنى: النفس.


قال المتنبي:

مـــبارك الإسم أغـــرّ اللقبْ كريم الجرشّى شريف النسبْ


والحاصل:

انه إذا كان في الكلمة شيء من هذه الأربعة، كانت غير فصيحة، فاللازم على الفصيح اجتناب هذه الأمور.



فصاحة الكلام

فصاحة الكلام هي: خلوص الكلام من الأمور التالية:

1- من عدم فصاحة بعض كلماته، فإذا اشتمل كلام على كلمة غير فصيحة ـ كما تقدّم ـ سقط الكلام عن الفصاحة.

2- ومن تنافر الكلمات المجتمعة، بأن يكون بين كلماته تنافراً، فتثقل على السمع، وتَعسر على النطق، نحو هذين البيتين:

وقــب رحــرب بــمكان قفــــرُ وليس قــربَ قـبر حـرب قـبرُ


وقال أبو تمّمام:

كــريم متى أمــدحه والــورى معي وإذا ما لمته لمته وحدي


3- ومن ضعف التأليف: بأن يكون الكلام جارياً على خلاف قوانين النحو المستنبطة من كلام العرب، كوصل ضميرين وتقديم غير الاعرف نحو: (اعاضهاك) في قول المتنّبي:

خلت البلاد من الغزالة ليلهـا فاعاضهاك الله كــي لا تحزنا


4- ومن التعقيد اللفظي، بأن تكون الكلمات مرتّبة على خلاف ترتيب المعاني.


قال المتنبي:

جفختْ وهم لا يجفخون بها بهم شيمٌ على الحسب الأغر دلائل

والأصل: جفخت بهم شيمٌ دلائل على الحسب الاغرّ وهم لا يجفخون بها.


5 ـ ومن التعقيد المعنوي: بأن يكون التركيب خفي الدلالة على المعنى المراد بسبب ايراد اللوازم البعيدة، المحتاجة الى إعمال الذهن، حتى يفهم المقصود.


قال عباس بن الاحنف:

سأطلب بعد الدار عنكم لتقربوا وتسكب عيناي الدموع لتجمدا

أردا بجمود العين: الفرح والسرور الموجب لعدم البكاء، وهذا خلاف المعنى المتفاهم.


6- ومن كثرة التكرار، بأن يكرر اللفظ الواحد، فيأتي به مرتين أو أزيد.


قال الشاعر:

اني واسطار سطرن سطرا لقائل يا نصر نصر نصرا


7- ومن تتابع الاضافات، بأن تتداخل الإضافات.

قال ابن بابك:

حمامة جرعى حومة الجندل اسجعي فأنت بمــــرأى مـــن سعاد ومسمع


والحاصل:

انه إذا كان في الكلام أحد هذه الأمور السبعة كان غير فصيح.



فصاحة المتكلم

فصاحة المتكّلم عبارة: عن أن يكون المتكلم ذا ملكة يقتدر بها على التعبير عن المقصود، بكلام فصيح، والملكة تحصل بطول ممارسة الكلام الفصيح، بأن يكون في بيئة عربية فصيحة، أو يمرّن نفسه بكلمات الفصحاء كثيراً، كل ذلك وللذوق مدخل عظيم.


البلاغة

(البلاغة) في اللغة‏: بمعنى الوصول والانتهاء، قال تعالى: (ولّما بلغ اشدَّه)(2) أي وصل.

وفي الاصطلاح:

1 ـ أن يكون مطابقاً لمقتضى الحال، بأن يكون على طبق مستلزمات المقام، وحالات المخاطب، مثلاً لمقام الهول كلام، ولمقام الجد كلام، ومع السوقة كلام. ومع كلام الملوك كلام.. وهكذا.

2 ـ وان يكون فصيحاً ـ على ما تقدم ـ..
والبلاغة تقع وصفاً للكلام وللمتكلم، فيقال: كلام بليغ، ومتكلم بليغ، ولا يقال: كلمة بليغة.


بلاغة الكلام

(بلاغة الكلام) عبارة عن: أن يكون الكلام مطابقاً لما يقتضيه حال الخطاب، مع فصاحة الفاظ مفرداته ومركباته، فلو تكلم في حال الفرح مثل ما يتكلم في حال الحزن، أو العكس، أو تكلم في حال الفرح بكلام يتكلم به في هذه الحال لكن كانت الالفاظ غير فصيحة، لا يسمى الكلام بليغاً.
ثم إن الامر المقتضى للأتيان بالكلام على كيفية مّا، يسمى:

1 ـ (مقاماً) باعتبار حلول الكلام فيه.

2 ـ (حالاً) باعتبار حالة المخاطب أو المتكلم أو نحوهما.

والقاء الكلام على هذه الصورة التي اقتضاها الحال يسمى (مقتضى) فقولهم: (مقتضى الحال) أو (مقتضى المقام) بمعنى الكيفية التي اقتضاها الحال أو المقام.

مثلاً: يقال عند كون الفاعل نكرة، حين يتطلب المقام التنكير: هذا الكلام مطابق لمقتضى الحال.
إذاً: فالحال والمقام شيء واحد، وانما الاختلاف بالاعتبار.


بلاغة المتكلم

(بلاغة المتكلم) عبارة عن: ملكة في النفس يقتدر بها صاحبها على تأليف كلام بليغ، بحيث يكون مطابقاً لمقتضى الحال، فصيحاً.
وقد عرّف (ابن المعتز) الكلام البليغ بكلام بليغ، فقال: (ابلغ الكلام: ما حسن ايجاده، وقلّ مجازه، وكثر اعجازه، وتناسبت صدوره وأعجازه).



1 ـ القصص: 34.

2 ـ يوسف: 22. القصص: 14. الاحقاف: 15. ‏‏‏‏‏‏ ‏ ‏

Basic Radiology

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